International People's Tribunal on Human Rights and Justice in Kashmir (IPTK)

Unknown, Unmarked, and Mass Graves in Indian-Administered Kashmir

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Extended Bibliography

Scholarly Texts | Reports, Statements, and Appeals | Legal and Government Documents | Newspaper Articles

Scholarly Texts

  1. Anonymous. 1995. "Blood in the Valley: Kashmir - Behind the Propaganda Curtain." Bombay: Lokshahi Hakk Sanghatana.
  2. Talal Asad. 2007. On Suicide Bombing. New York: Columbia University Press.
  3. Sumantra Bose. 2005. Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  4. Ian Brownlie. 1998. Principles of Public International Law, New York Clarendon Press.
  5. Allen Buchanan. 2007. Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
  6. Partha Chatterjee. 1993. The Nation and Its Fragments. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  7. Angana P. Chatterji. 2009. Violent Gods: Hindu Nationalism in India's Present; Narratives from Orissa. Gurgaon: Three Essays Collective.
  8. Margaret Cox, Ambika Flavel, Ian Hanson, Joanna Laver, and Roland Wessling. 2008. The Scientific Investigation of Mass Graves: Towards Protocols and Standard Operating Procedures. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  9. Wolfgang F. Danspeckgruber, ed. 2002. The Self-Determination of Peoples: Community, Nation, and State in an Interdependent World. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  10. Veena Das. 2002. "The Act of Witnessing: Violence, Poisonous Knowledge, and Subjectivity," in Veena Das, Arthur Kleinman, Mamphela Ramphele, and Pamela Reynolds, eds., Violence and Subjectivity, 205-25. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  11. Knut Dormann. 2003. "The legal situation of unlawful/unprivileged combatants," The International Review of the Red Cross, 85 (849).
  12. Michel Foucault. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon Press.
  13. Michel Foucault. 1980. Power/Knowledge. New York: Pantheon Press.
  14. Michel Foucault. 2000. "Governmentality," in Power: Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Volume 3, ed. James Faubion, 201-22. New York: The New Press.
  15. Michel Foucault. 2007. Territory, Population, Lectures at the Collège De France, 1977-1978. Translation Graham Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  16. Michel Foucault. 2008. The Birth of Biopolitics, Lectures at the Collège De France, 1978-1979. Translation Graham Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  17. Martin Griffiths. 2003. "Self-determination, International Society And World Order." Macquarie University Law Journal, 1.
  18. William D. Haglund. 2002. "Recent Mass Graves, an Introduction," in William D. Haglund and Marcella H. Sorg, eds., Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives, 243-61. New York: CRC Press.
  19. William D. Haglund, Melissa Connor, and Douglas D. Scott. 2001. "The Archaeology of Contemporary Mass Graves." Historical Archaeology 35(1): 57-69.
  20. Hurst Hannum. 1996. Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  21. Mark W. Janis. 2003. An Introduction to International Law, New York: Aspen Publishers.
  22. Abdul R. JanMohamed. 2005. The Death-Bound-Subject: Richard Wright's Archaeology of Death. Durham: Duke University Press.
  23. Michael Kolodner. 1996. "Violence as Policy in the Occupations of Palestine, Kashmir, and Northern Ireland." Master's Thesis, Amherst College.
  24. Debra Komar. 2008. "Patterns of Mortuary Practice Associated with Genocide: Implications for Archaeological Research." Current Anthropology 49(1): 123-33.
  25. Alastair Lamb. 1997. Incomplete Partition: The Genesis of the Kashmir Dispute, 1947-1948. Hertingfordbury: Roxford Books
  26. Percy Lehning. 1998. Theories of Secession. New York: Routledge.
  27. Peter Malanczuk. 1997. Akehurst's Modern Introduction to International Law, USA and Canada: Routledge.
  28. A. K. Mant. 1987. "Knowledge acquired from post-war exhumation," in A. Boddington, A.N. Garland, and R.C. Janaway, eds., Death, Decay and Reconstruction, Approaches to Archaeology and Forensic Science, 10-21. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  29. Mark David "Max" Maxwell and Sean M. Watts. 2007. "Unlawful Enemy Combatant: Status, Theory of Culpability, or Neither?" Journal of International Criminal Justice. ICJ 5(1): 19-25.
  30. T. Meron. 1989. Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law, New York: Oxford University Press.
  31. Aleksandar Pavkovic and Peter Radan. 2003. "In Pursuit of Sovereignty and Self-determination: Peoples, States and Secession in the International Order." Macquarie University Law Journal, 1.
  32. Michael S. Pollanen. 2002. "Forensic Survey of Three Memorial Sites Containing Human Skeletal Remains in the Kingdom of Cambodia." Mission Report to the Coalition for International Justice, Washington, D.C.
  33. Mridu Rai. 2004. Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir. Delhi: Permanent Black.
  34. Arundhati Roy. 2009. Field Notes to Democracy: Listening to Grasshoppers. New Delhi: Haymarket Books.
  35. Olivier Roy. 2004. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. New York: Columbia University Press.
  36. Stefan Schmitt. 2002. "Mass Graves and the Collection of Forensic Evidence: Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity," in William D. Haglund and Marcella H. Sorg, eds., Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory and Archaeological Perspectives, 277-92. New York: CRC Press.
  37. Mark Skinner. 1987. "Planning the Archaeological Recovery of Evidence from Recent Mass Graves." Forensic Sciences International (34): 267-87.
  38. Robert Wirsing. 2003. Kashmir in the Shadow of Rivalries in a Nuclear Age. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

Reports, Statements, and Appeals

  1. Amnesty International. 2009. "One killed, 150 injured as protests continue in Jammu & Kashmir following rape and murder of two young women".
  2. Angana Chatterji. 2008. "Letter of Appeal to the UN Re. Cases of Security Forces Killing and Injuring Civilians in Kashmir (September 11).
  3. Angana P. Chatterji, Parvez Imroz, Gautam Navlakha, Zahir-Ud-Din, Mihir Desai, Khurram Parvez. 2009. "Militarization with Impunity: A Brief on Rape and Murder in Shopian, Kashmir." Srinagar: International People's Tribunal on Human Rights and Justice in Indian-administered Kashmir.
  4. Manoel de Almeida e Silva. 2002. Briefing by Spokesperson for the Special Representative of the Secretary General, Afghanistan, April 11, 2002.
  5. Asia Watch (A Division of Human Rights Watch) and Physicians for Human Rights. 1993. "The Human Rights Crisis in Kashmir: A Pattern of Impunity." New York: Human Rights Watch.
  6. Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons. 2008. "Facts Under Ground: A fact-finding mission on nameless graves & mass graves in Uri area." Srinagar: Coalition of Civil Society.
  7. Radhika Coomaraswamy. 2001. "Violence against women perpetrated and/or condoned by the State during times of armed conflict (1997-2000)." Commission on Human Rights, United Nations document E/CN.4/2001/73.
  8. James A. Goldston, Patricia Gossman, and the Asia Watch Committee. 1991. "Human Rights in India: Kashmir Under Siege." Washington D.C.: Human Rights Watch;
  9. Dennis M. Hatcher and Kathryn Roe Coker (733rd Military Police Battalion). 2004. "The Global War on Terrorism: Operation Iraq Freedom." Fort McPherson: Office of Army Reserve History, United States Army Reserve Command.
  10. Human Rights Watch. 1991. "Abdication of Responsibility: The Commonwealth and Human Rights." New York: Human Rights Watch.
  11. Human Rights Watch. 1996. "India's Secret Army in Kashmir." New York: Human Rights Watch.
  12. Human Rights Watch. 2004. "Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda," New York: Human Rights Watch.
  13. Human Rights Watch. 2006. "'Everyone Lives in Fear': Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir." New York: Human Rights Watch.
  14. Human Rights Watch. 2006. "'With Friends Like These': Human Rights Violations in Azad Kashmir." September, Volume 18, No. 12(C). New York: Human Rights Watch.
  15. Human Rights Watch. 2009. "India: Overhaul Abusive, Failing Police System." New York: Human Rights Watch.
  16. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. 2007. "India: Large numbers of IDPs [internally displaced persons] are unassisted and in need of protection."
  17. Institute of War and Peace Reporting. 2008. "DRC: Ituri case revives village horrors."
  18. Project Ploughshares. 2008. Armed Conflicts Report: India-Kashmir.
  19. Public Commission on Human Rights. 2006. "State of Human Rights in Jammu and Kashmir." Srinagar: Coalition of Civil Society.
  20. World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, Democratic Republic of Congo Overview.

Legal and Government Documents

  1. The Atlantic Charter of 1941.
  2. Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity of 1968.
  3. European Parliament Resolution on Mass Graves in Indian-administered Kashmir: P6_TA(2008)0366.
  4. The Geneva Conventions of 1949.
    1. Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and
      Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
    2. Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
    3. Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
    4. Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of
      War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
    5. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977.
    6. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977.
    7. For list of State Parties to Geneva Conventions see ICRC website at:
  5. Hague Convention. 1907. Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV).
  6. India Code of Criminal Procedure. 1973.
  7. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).
  8. International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
  9. Jammu and Kashmir Government. 1971. Ranbir Penal Code (XII of 1989 [Act XII of 1932]), 762-961.
  10. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. 2001. "Census 2001: State-wise Population by Religion." New Delhi: Government of India.
  11. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. 2001. "Projected Total Population by sex as on 1st March-2001-2026 India, States and Union Territories." New Delhi: Government of India
  12. The Rome Statute. 2002.
  13. United Nations Charter of 1945. >
  14. United Nations Commission on Human Rights. 1997. Resolution: Question of the Death Penalty: E/CN.4/RES/1997/12.
  15. United Nations Commission on Human Rights. 2004. Resolution: Question of the Death Penalty: E/CN.4/RES/2004/67.
  16. United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (1954).
  17. [United Nations] General Assembly 51st Session, Agenda item 110b, "Human Rights Questions: Human Rights Questions Including Alternative Approaches for Improving the Effective Enjoyment of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions; Note by the Secretary-General."
  18. [United Nations] Guidelines for the Conduct of UN Inquiries into Allegations of Massacres. 1995. DPI/1710.
  19. United Nations Security Council Resolutions. 1948. Resolution 38.
  20. United Nations Security Council Resolutions. 1948. Resolution 39.
  21. United Nations Security Council Resolutions. 1948. Resolution 51.
  22. United Nations Security Council Resolutions. 1951. Resolution 91.
  23. United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1948.
  24. Case Law
    1. Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu, ICTR-96-4-T, Judgement, 2 September 1998.
    2. Prosecutor v. Vidoje Blagojevi_ and Dragan Joki_, Case No. IT-02-60-T, Judgement, 17 January 2005.
    3. Prosecutor v. Radoslav Brdanin, Case No. I IT-99-36-T, Judgement, 1 September 2004.
    4. Prosecutor v. Enver Hadzihasanovic and Amir Kubura, Case No. IT-01-47-T, Judgement, 15 March 2006.
    5. Prosecutor v. Goran Jelisić, Case No. IT-95-10-T, Judgement, 14 December 1999.
    6. Prosecutor v. Clément Kayishema and Obed Ruzindana, ICTR-95-1-T, Judgement, 21 May 1999.
    7. Prosecutor v. Momcilo Krajisnic, Case: IT-00-39-T, Judgement, 27 September 2006.
    8. Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstić, Case No. IT-98-33-T, Judgement, 02 August 2001.
    9. Prosecutor v. Fatmir Limaj et al., Case No. IT-03-66-T, Judgement, 30 November 2005.
    10. Prosecutor v. Milan Martić, Case No. IT-95-11-T, Judgement, 12 June 2007.
    11. Prosecutor v. Mrksic et al, Case No. IT-95-13/1-T, Judgement, 27 September 2007.
    12. Prosecutor v. Athanase Seromba, Case No. ICTR-2001-66-T, Judgement, 13 December 2006.
    13. Prosecutor v. Mitar Vasiljević, Case No. IT-98-32-T, Judgement, 29 November 2002.

Newspaper Articles

  1. Peter Beaumont. 2009. "Same old mistakes in new Afghan war," The Guardian (October 18)
  2. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2003. "The Future of Kashmir?" (June), date noted in Kanishkan Sathasivam. 2005. Uneasy Neighbours: India, Pakistan, and US Foreign Policy, 45. Burlington: Ashgate.
  3. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2007. DRC troops jailed for war crimes.
  4. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. "Muslims in huge Kashmir protest," (August 22).
  5. Parvaiz Bukhari. 2009. "Omar jumps gun on Shopian," India Today (June 12)
  6. Shujaat Bukhari. 2009. "Yoga, counselling to relieve stress among J&K troops," The Hindu (January 30).
  7. Elisabeth Bumiller and Mark Landler. 2009. "Civilian Goals Largely Unmet in Afghanistan," The New York Times (October 11).
  8. Andrew Buncombe and Omar Waraich. 2009. "Pakistan starts huge offensive against Taliban," The Independent (October 18).
  9. Angana Chatterji. 2008. "Disquiet Ghosts: Mass Graves in Indian Kashmir," The Daily Etala'at (July 9).
  10. Michael Deibert. 2007. "Kashmiri Separatist Seeks End To Armed Struggle," The Washington Times (February 25).
  11. Naseer A. Ganai. 2009. "Resolve Kashmir: Omar Tells Delhi," Greater Kashmir (October 14).
  12. Antonio Guistozzi, ed. 2009. Decoding the New Taliban: Insights form the Afghan Field. New York: Columbia University Press.
  13. Altaf Hussain. 2007. "The plight of Kashmir's 'half-widows,'" British Broadcasting Corporation (December 4).
  14. Indo-Asian News Service. 2009. "Kashmir on alert amid fears of militant incursion: Police Chief," Thaindian News (March 25).
  15. Muzamil Jaleel. 2008. "209 Kashmiri Pandits killed since 1989, say J-K cops in first report," Indian Express (May 4)
  16. Kashmir Observer. 2009. "Girls Take Up Justice Cry, Brave Police Force" (June 10)
  17. Kashmir Times. 2008. "Entire Valley Under Siege" (August 24).
  18. Mail and Guardian Online (October 3, 2005) UN team to probe mass graves in the DRC.
  19. Ishfaq Mir and Shabir Ali. 2009. Associated Press. 2009. "World Briefing: Kashmir: Police Fire On Protesters," New York Times (June 9).
  20. Gautam Navlakha. 2008. "India in Kashmir: Winning a battle only to lose the war?" Economic and Political Weekly (43/45): 43-9.
  21. New York Times. 1994." U.N. Discovers Mass Graves In Rwanda" (October 7).
  22. Athar Parvaiz. 2009. "Conflict threatens wildlife in Kashmir," OneWorld South Asia (February 6).
  23. Lydia Polgreen. 2009. "2 Killings Stoke Kashmiri Rage at Indian Force," New York Times (August 15).
  24. Lydia Polgreen and Souad Mekhennet. 2009. "Militant Network Is Intact Long After Mumbai Siege," The New York Times (September 29)
  25. Muzaffar Raina. 2008. "Pandits in poll to get home," The Telegraph (November 20).
  26. Ahmed Rashid. 2009. "Analysis: No end in sight for Pakistan's struggle against the Taliban," The Telegraph (October 17).
  27. Reuters. 2009. "India Withdraws Some Kashmir Troops in Peace Gesture," The New York Times (October 29).
  28. Rising Kashmir. "June Ghost Revived in Shopian" (June 1).
  29. Somini Sengupta and Yusuf Jameel. 2008. "Deadly Force Used to Halt March in Kashmir," New York Times (August 11).
  30. Richard Shapiro. 2009. "A Just Peace in Kashmir? Reflections on Dynamics of Change," Rising Kashmir (August 13).
  31. The Cable. 2009. "India's stealth lobbying against Holbrooke's brief." Foreign Policy (January 23).
  32. Arif Safi Wani and Muddasir Ali. 2009. "Troops occupy 10.40 lakh kanals in JK," Greater Kashmir (August 24).
  33. Emily Wax. 2009. "U.S. Removes Kashmir From Envoy's Mandate; India Exults," The Washington Post (January 30).
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